Engine cycle diagram

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The engine of heavy motor vehicles mostly operates on diesel cycle or constant volume cycle. Diesel cycle was introduced by Dr. Rudolph Diesel in Diesel cycle differs from otto cycle in one respect. The is added at constant pressure instead of constant volume. Thus, it comprises two adiabatic processes, one constant pressure heat addition process, and one constant volume heat rejection process. Diesel cycle engines use heavy oil, diesel oil is the most common.

In diesel cycle engines only air is compressed in the cylinder to aa high pressure, the temperature of this compressed air becomes sufficiently high to ignite the fuel. Diesel is injected in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke which itself ignites due to the high temperature of the compressed air.

The diesel engine does not have a spark plug. In a four-stroke, diesel cycle compression ignition engine, the four strokes are as follows:. Theoretically, the power stroke from point 4. The hot gases now expand adiabatically to point 5 in the cylinder pushing the piston down.

engine cycle diagram

The piston finally reaches to the bottom dead center. Both the valves remain closed during the stroke. The fig shows the valve timing diagram for a four-stroke diesel cycle engine. Let the engine cylinder carry m kg of air at point 1. Following are 4 stages of an ideal diesel cycle. The ideal diesel cycle consists of two adiabatic, constant pressure and constant volume processes.

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These processes are represented on a P-v and T-s diagram as shown in the Figure. The air is heated at constant pressure from initial temperature T1 to a temperature T2 represented by the graph in Fig. The air is expanded adiabatically from temperature T2 to a temperature T3 as shown by the graph in Fig. In this process, on heat, we absorbed or rejected by the air. The air is now cooled at constant volume from temperature T4 to a temperature T4 as shown by the graph in the figure. The air is compressed adiabatically from temperature T4 to a temperature T1 represented by the graph in Fig.

3D animation of a fuel injected V8

In this process, no heat is absorbed or rejected by the air.A four-stroke also four-cycle engine is an internal combustion IC engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft.

A stroke refers to the full travel of the piston along the cylinder, in either direction. The four separate strokes are termed:. Nicolaus August Otto was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern.

In his travels, he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon.

In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine inOtto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge. InOtto attempted to produce an engine to improve on the poor efficiency and reliability of the Lenoir engine.

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He tried to create an engine that would compress the fuel mixture prior to ignition, but failed as that engine would run no more than a few minutes prior to its destruction.

Many other engineers were trying to solve the problem, with no success. Otto and Cie succeeded in creating a successful atmospheric engine that same year. Daimler was a gunsmith who had worked on the Lenoir engine. ByOtto and Langen succeeded in creating the first internal combustion engine that compressed the fuel mixture prior to combustion for far higher efficiency than any engine created to this time.

Daimler and Maybach left their employ at Otto and Cie and developed the first high-speed Otto engine in Inthey produced the first automobile to be equipped with an Otto engine. The Daimler Reitwagen used a hot-tube ignition system and the fuel known as Ligroin to become the world's first vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. It used a four-stroke engine based on Otto's design.

The following year, Karl Benz produced a four-stroke engined automobile that is regarded as the first car. Today, that company is Daimler-Benz. The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of single stroke internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in The Atkinson cycle is designed to provide efficiency at the expense of power densityand is used in some modern hybrid electric applications.

The original Atkinson-cycle piston engine allowed the intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes of the four-stroke cycle to occur in a single turn of the crankshaft and was designed to avoid infringing certain patents covering Otto-cycle engines. Due to the unique crankshaft design of the Atkinson, its expansion ratio can differ from its compression ratio and, with a power stroke longer than its compression stroke, the engine can achieve greater thermal efficiency than a traditional piston engine.

The diesel engine is a technical refinement of the Otto-cycle engine. Where Otto had realized in that the efficiency of the engine could be increased by first compressing the fuel mixture prior to its ignition, Rudolf Diesel wanted to develop a more efficient type of engine that could run on much heavier fuel. With the same motivation as Otto, Diesel wanted to create an engine that would give small industrial companies their own power source to enable them to compete against larger companies, and like Otto, to get away from the requirement to be tied to a municipal fuel supply.

Like Otto, it took more than a decade to produce the high-compression engine that could self-ignite fuel sprayed into the cylinder. Diesel used an air spray combined with fuel in his first engine.For over a hundred years, engines got bigger, faster, and meaner, with more horsepower and torque. Exhaust belched from the tailpipes like a dragon awoken from its slumber to roar at potential thieves of its treasure. At least, that's what the guy with the wide tires and the airbrushed flame job wants you to think.

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Then came the twentieth century, when we realized that fire -breathing engines were slaying more than red-light drag racing opponents. Turns out, all that belching was changing the climate and creating nasty smog.

Too many dragons were making the planet more like Mordor than the Shire. Who can save us from these exhaust-belching dragons? Who can tame their gas-guzzling ways with his sword of science and engineering? Who carries the one true ring of fuel efficiency?

Rankine cycle

Also of That's right -- the latest in green engine technology comes from the dawn of the automotive age. But the uneven strokes of the piston in his gasoline -powered combustion engine fit our modern hybrid systems pretty neatly. The Atkinson cycle engine used in so many hybrids these days works on the same principle as the original -- with the obvious advantage of a century of technological advances. But in order to understand where we're at today, we first have to know where we've been.

Set your time machine for ! Atkinson's U. Or you can just read this explanation, which is far wittier than any patent. The most common combustion engine these days is a four-stroke Otto cycle enginewhere a piston goes up and down inside a cylinder and a spark ignites a mixture of gas and air. Same goes for an Atkinson cycle engine, so here's a quick refresher of the process:.

Compression stroke: Squishes the mixture so when the spark goes off, it will explode -- big time.As the 2 stroke engine animation below shows, a two-stroke engine in its purest form is extremely simple in construction and operation, as it only has three primary moving parts the piston, connecting rod, and crankshaft.

However, the two-stroke cycle can be difficult for some to visualize at first because certain phases of the cycle occur simultaneously, causing it to be hard to tell when one part of the cycle ends and another begins. Several different varieties of two-stroke engines have been developed over the years, and each type has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. The subject of the 2 stroke engine animation and this dissertation is known as a case-reed type because induction is controlled by a reed valve mounted in the side of the crankcase.

The easiest way to visualize two-stroke operation is to follow the flow of gases through the engine starting at the air inlet. As in the 2 stroke engine animation and diagram, in this case, the cycle would begin at approximately mid-stroke when the piston is rising, and has covered the transfer port openings:. As the piston moves upward, a vacuum is created beneath the piston in the enclosed volume of the crankcase.

Air flows through the reed valve and carburetor to fill the vacuum created in the crankcase. For the purposes of discussion, the intake phase is completed when the piston reaches the top of the stroke in reality, as shown in the 2 stroke engine animation, mixture continues to flow into the crankcase even when the piston is on its way back down due to the inertia of the fuel mixture, especially at high RPM :.

During the down stroke, the falling piston creates a positive pressure in the crankcase which causes the reed valve to close. The mixture in the crankcase is compressed until the piston uncovers the transfer port openings, at which point the mixture flows up into the cylinder.

The engine depicted in the 2 stroke engine animation and diagrams is known as a loop-scavenged two-stroke because the incoming mixture describes a circular path as shown in the picture below.

What is not readily apparent in the picture is that the primary portion of the mixture is directed toward the cylinder wall opposite the exhaust port this reduces the amount of mixture that escapes out the open exhaust port, also known as short-circuiting :.

engine cycle diagram

Mixture transfer continues until the piston once again rises high enough to shut off the transfer ports which is where we started this discussion. Let's fast-forward about 25 degrees of crank rotation to the point where the exhaust port is covered by the piston. The trapped mixture is now compressed by the upward moving piston at the same time that a new charge is being drawn into the crankcase down below as shown in the 2 stroke engine animation and the diagram here:.

Somewhat before the piston reaches the top of the stroke approximately 30 degrees of crank rotation before top-dead-centerthe sparkplug ignites the mixture. If you watch the 2 stroke engine animation you will see this event is timed such that the burning mixture reaches peak pressure slightly after top dead center. The expanding mixture drives the piston downward until it begins to uncover the exhaust port. The majority of the pressure in the cylinder is released within a few degrees of crank rotation after the port begins to open:.

Four-stroke engine

Residual exhaust gases are pushed out the exhaust port by the new mixture entering the cylinder from the transfer ports.

In the 2 stroke engine animation you can see the gases moving out of the exhaust at the same time new mixture is entering the cylinder. That completes the chain of events for the basic two-stroke cycle. The discussion is not complete. The 2 stroke engine animation demonstration has an added device commonly known as an expansion chamber attached to the exhaust port.

The expansion chamber an improperly named device utilizes sonic energy contained in the initial sharp pulse of exhaust gas exiting the cylinder to supercharge the cylinder with fresh mixture.

This device is also known as a tuned exhaust. Picking up the discussion at the point shown by the exhaust blowdown picture above, an extremely high energy pulse of exhaust gas enters the header pipe when the piston begins to open the exhaust port, you can see these pulses in the 2 stroke engine animation:.

The sonic compression wave resulting from this abrupt release of cylinder pressure travels down the exhaust pipe until it reaches the beginning of the divergent cone, or diffuser, of the expansion chamber. From the perspective of the sound waves reaching this junction, the diffuser appears almost like an open-ended tube in that part of the energy of the pulse is reflected back up the pipe, except with an inverted sign; a rarefaction, or vacuum pulse is returned.

Watch the 2 stroke engine animation closely to see the waves reflected back up the pipe. The angle of the walls of the cone determine the magnitude of the returned negative pressure, and the length of the cone defines the duration of the returning waves:.

The negative pressure assists the mixture coming up through the transfer ports, and actually draws some of the mixture out into the exhaust header.

Meanwhile, the original pressure pulse is still making its way down the expansion chamber, although a considerable portion of its energy was given up in creating the negative pressure waves.A four-cycle engine works with 4 basic steps to a successful rotation of the crankshaft: the intake, compression, power and exhaust stroke. Each engine cylinder has four openings for the intake, exhaust, spark plug and fuel injection.

The piston is driven by the engine's crankshaft whereas the intake and exhaust valves are driven by the camshaft. The various processes comprising the cycles of a four-stroke engine are explained below:. Intake Stroke: The intake stroke is where the intake valves are open and the air is drawn into the cylinder. The fuel injector sprays the fuel into the cylinder to achieve the perfect air-fuel ratio.

The downward movement of the piston causes the air and fuel to be sucked into the cylinder. Compression Stroke: The next is the compression cycle where both the intake and exhaust valves are closed. The upward movement of the piston causes the air-fuel mixture to be compressed upwards towards the spark plug.

The compression makes the air-fuel combination volatile for easier ignition. The spark plug produces a spark to ignite the compressed air-fuel mixture. The resulting energy of the combustion forcefully pushes the piston downward. Exhaust Stroke: The last cycle is the exhaust stroke, when the exhaust valves open and the exhaust gases are forced up by the returning piston.

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View all posts by: Brad Paugh. The various processes comprising the cycles of a four-stroke engine are explained below: Intake Stroke: The intake stroke is where the intake valves are open and the air is drawn into the cylinder.

April 30, Brad Paugh. No comments. Leave a comment Click here to cancel reply.The Rankine cycle is a model used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems. It was also used to study the performance of reciprocating steam engines. The Rankine cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle of a heat engine that converts heat into mechanical work while undergoing phase change.

It is an idealized cycle in which friction losses in each of the four components are neglected. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop, which usually uses water as the working fluid. The Rankine cycle closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in thermal power generation plants generate power.

Power depends on the temperature difference between a heat source and a cold source. The higher the difference, the more mechanical power can be efficiently extracted out of heat energy, as per Carnot's theorem. The heat sources used in these power plants are usually nuclear fission or the combustion of fossil fuels such as coalnatural gasand oilor concentrated solar power. The higher the temperature, the better. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the high heat of vaporization of the working fluid.

This low steam turbine entry temperature compared to a gas turbine is why the Rankine steam cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle to recover otherwise rejected heat in combined-cycle gas turbine power stations.

The cold source the colder the better used in these power plants are usually cooling towers and a large water body river or sea. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited on the cold side by the lower practical temperature of the working fluid.

Engine Cycles

The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is reused constantly. The water vapor with condensed droplets often seen billowing from power stations is created by the cooling systems not directly from the closed-loop Rankine power cycle. This 'exhaust' heat is represented by the "Q out " flowing out of the lower side of the cycle shown in the T—s diagram below.

Cooling towers operate as large heat exchangers by absorbing the latent heat of vaporization of the working fluid and simultaneously evaporating cooling water to the atmosphere.

engine cycle diagram

While many substances could be used as the working fluid in the Rankine cycle, water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties, such as its non-toxic and unreactive chemistry, abundance, and low cost, as well as its thermodynamic properties.

The benefit of this is offset by the low temperatures of steam admitted to the turbine s. However, the thermal efficiency of actual large steam power stations and large modern gas turbine stations are similar.Our 4-stroke engines lead the world in production and quality. In overhead valve OHV engines, the valves are positioned above the piston.

The camshaft moves the valves through a tappet, pushrods and rocker arms. In order to power your equipment, the overhead valve engine completes a repeating 4-step process detailed below. Air and fuel enter the small engine through the carburetor. During the intake stroke, the intake valve between the carburetor and combustion chamber opens.

This allows atmospheric pressure to force the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder bore as the piston moves downward. Just after the piston moves to the bottom of its travel bottom dead centerthe cylinder bore contains the maximum air-fuel mixture possible.

The intake valve closes and the piston returns back up the cylinder bore. This is called the compression stroke of the 4-stroke engine process. The air-fuel mixture is compressed between the piston and cylinder head.

Four Stroke Diesel Cycle Engine and Its Working [Explained with P-v and T-s Diagram]

When the piston reaches the top of its travel top dead centerit will be at its optimum point to ignite the fuel to get maximize power to your outdoor power equipment.

A very high voltage is created in the ignition coil. The spark plug enables this high voltage to be discharged into the combustion chamber. The heat created by the spark ignites the gases, creating rapidly expanding, super-heated gases that force the piston back down the cylinder bore. This is called the power stroke. When the piston reaches bottom dead center again, the exhaust valve opens. As the piston travels back up the cylinder bore, it forces the spent combustion gases through the exhaust valve and out of the exhaust systems.

As the piston returns to top dead center, the exhaust valve closes and the intake valve opens and the 4-stroke engine process repeat. Ever repetition of the cycle requires two full rotations of the crankshaft, while the engine only creates power during one of the four strokes.

To keep the machine running, it needs the small engine flywheel. All rights reserved. Explore Our Family of Brands. Change Region. United States. Latin America. Residential Brands. Commercial Brands.

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